The major characteristic feature of the building during the Ottoman period in Egypt is the smaller scale and diminishing splendor of monuments. In fact Ottoman Cairo simply could not afford to build monuments on the Mamluk scale and that was due to many reasons:
*In place of Mamluk Sultan, there was now only the Ottoman governor to act as a leading patron of art. But the post of Wali of Egypt was not a profitable one; therefore the Wali of Egypt can't afford to build great monuments similar to the Mamluk ones.
* Syria was separated from the area yielding revenue to Cairo and the Indian trade decreased.
*After 1524 A.D. in the reign of Solyman Qanuni, the institution necessitated that a yearly sum of money should be sent to the Imperial Treasury. That sum was fixed in 1534 A.D. at half a million gold pieces. That was of course the responsibility of the wali to pay.
* The Wali was also responsible to make up any deficits that resulted from law Niles or mutinies and rebellions among the army from their own money (khass revenues).
That means the shortage of money for construction was the main reason behind the smaller scale buildings. The exception of some major monuments built by some governors was done with sums they did not derive from Egypt, but brought-or sent from outside the country. Only during 17th and 18th centuries when Mamluk Beyes were preventing sending money to Istanbul, they had enough money to fund more ambitious monuments.
Concerning the architectural style of the period one would except the governors to bring a taste for Ottoman architecture to Cairo. They were more influenced with the Mamluk style rather than the Ottoman style architecture.
Styles of mosques in the Ottoman period:
There were three styles of mosques in the Ottoman period,
1- Buildings totally Ottoman in style though not necessarily in decoration such as the mosque of Solyman Pasha.
2- Buildings of hybrid style such as the mosque of Sinan Pasha.
3- Buildings with Mamluk style with an Ottoman minaret such as the mosque of Uthman Katkhuda.
The mosque of Uthman Katkhuda
The mosque of Kikhya""
1147 A.H – 1734 A.D.
Who is Uthman Katkhuda?
He is Emir Uthman Katkhuda Al-kazodoghly, a powerful wealthy emir of the Janissaries,
Father of Abd Elrahman Katkhuda. He also was follower of Emir Hassan Gawish, and held a number of positions to be held Katkhaddaiih. He built many religious buildings.
It situates in the corner in which El-Gumhuriya Street and Qasr El-Nil Street intersect.
It is the only remaining part of the complex that was established by Uthman Katkhuda in the quarter of El-Azbakiya.
The mosque was built together with residential and commercial buildings as it was surrounded by houses, a Raba, Hammam, sabil and Kuttab and a number of shops. The process of restoration of the mosque took about 11 years and finally it was opened again in 2000 AD.
Plan of the mosque: (Fig 1) "Mamluk style"
The mosque of Emir 'Uthman Katkhuda was built as part of a large complex in 1734.AD- 1147 A.H.
It follows the Mamluk style with Ottoman minaret.
The mosque is a hypostyle plan with a courtyard.
It is the only the mosque of this period to have a hypostyle plan.
The portal is located in the northern side and leads to a central courtyard surrounded with four riwaqs; the largest one is the Qibla riwaq which consists of three arcades with marble columns carrying pointed arches. Each of the side and back riwaqs contains only one arcade. On the southern riwaq there is a doorway leads to the roof.
The façade: (Fig 2) "Mamluk style"
The mosque has four facades but only two of them that appear now because of the modern buildings around it.
* The northern façade: (the main façade)
Overlooking Qasr Al-Nile Street. The portal divides the façade into two similar parts.
The façade is divided into three vertical recesses each one contains two windows except one contains only one window on the upper part.
The upper ones are twin arched windows supported by three marble columns and surmounted by small circular one while the lower windows are rectangular in shape with wooden grills and surmounted by a lintel, naphes and relieving arch. All the recesses are surmounted by stalactites except the right one.
* The eastern facade: Fig (3)
Overlooking El-Gumhuriya Street, it contains two recesses each one consists of double arched window surmounted by small circular one "Qendlaya", between them there is Qamarya.
The whole façade is surmounted by tree-foil crenellation.
-The portal: (Fig 4)"Ottoman style"
There is an ascending staircase leads to the portal. It is a trilobed with groin-vaulted, in the middle there is a small rectangular window flanked by two marble columns and surmounted by tree-foil crenellation.
The doorway is surmounted by a lintel, naphes and relieving arch.
On both sides of the portal there are two benches surmounted by a band of geometrical decoration.
-the minaret: (Fig 5)"Ottoman style"
It is a pencil-shaped minaret.
It is located on the eastern side, it is composed of a square base and three stories, the first is octagonal, the second story is Cylindrical in shape and ribbed, and ends with balcony carried on stalactites. And finally the third story is Cylindrical in shape surmounted with a jawsq take a pencil form.
* The Interior:
Open Court surrounded with four riwaqs. And the painted wooden ceiling is carried on marble columns and pointed arches.
Qibla iwan: (Fig 6)
It is the largest one, contains three arcades with marble columns carrying pointed arches.
The prayer niche: (fig 7)"Mamluk style"
The upper part takes the shape of a pointed arch carried on two columns; it is decorated with inlaid marble. The conch of the niche is decorated with zigzag, the niche itself is decorated with star polygons and the lower part is decorated with marble dado. Beside the niche from the left side there is two vases are painted. It is surmounted by a medallion.
The pulpit: (Fig 8)"Mamluk style"
It is made of turned wood and decorated with star polygons. It contains small door way opens on ascending staircase ends with a seat of Imam.
The lateral iwans:
Each one contains only one arcade
The back iwan:
It contains only one arcade with columns carrying pointed arches, and contains Dikkat Almubaligh (Fig 9) which is made of wood and carried on two columns.
* The mosque follows the Mamluk style with Ottoman minaret:
- The façade is divided into several panels that are Mamluk influence.
- The trilobed portal is an Ottoman influence follows the Ottoman style.
- The minaret is a completely Ottoman style that takes the pencil shape.
- The plan follows the Mamluk style that consists of open court surrounded with four riwaqs.
- The prayer niche is decorated with Mamluk decorations.
- The pulpit is decorated with Mamluk decorations.